Những Đôi Vai Của Vĩ Nhân Chân Chính mà bọn Lợi Nhuận trèo lên để hái tiền từ đám dân chúng bầy đàn vô tâm


Thượng tuần tháng 10-2011, Steve Job kẻ được tô vẽ là “thiên tài” Apple Ipod là Jefferson của “kỹ nghệ nhạc số” v.v lăn đùng ra chết – và cả thế giới báo chí chính qui lẫn “người mất tiền tiêu thụ” nức nở tiếc thương cho một “kỳ nhân” đã cống hiến “trí tuệ sáng tạo” cho nhân loại. Cả thế giới thông tin, các chính trị gia, các đài báo, đầu ghềnh quán cóc v.v đều sụt sùi “nếu như không có Steve Job thì ….v.v và v.v
Trong cùng thời gian này, một vĩ nhân thật sự cũng ra đi – Dennis Ritchie – một khoa học gia trí thức thật sự sáng tạo ra những nền tảng khoa học thông tin mã số- mà không có những sáng tạo này, những tên như Bill Gates, Steve Job, những tên thiếu khả năng trí thức sáng tạo- học không nổi bỏ ngang- nhưng nhanh trí trong thủ đoạn chiều thị hiếu lấy tiển (Entrepreneur skills) sẽ không có “chỗ đứng” chứ nói gì tuyên bố khoác lác “bản quyền sáng tạo” và độc quyền hái  tiền- và cái đám hàng tỉ kẻ tiêu thụ vô tâm hôm nay đây làm gì có được máy điện toán hay điện thoại di động với đủ trò vàng cám.

Dennis Ritchie , sinh năm 1941 – mất 12- tháng 10- 2011- là nhà khoa học đã sáng tạo ra ngôn ngữ C (1969-1973)– cùng đồng phát minh ra ANSI C – UNIX cho không nhân loại – không có ngôn ngữ C-  UNIX những cái gọi là ứng liệu hay phần mềm (softwares)  để cho máy PC, điện thoại di động, các loại máy móc kỹ nghệ truyền thông v.v  thật sự hoạt động- sẽ chẳng thể hiện hũu khắp các ngành kỹ thuật và kỹ nghệ trong đời sống nhân loại hôm nay.

Quí vị mỗi khi dùng bất cứ máy móc gì có “điện toán phần mềm”, xin thầm cảm tạ Dennis M. Ritchie(https://en.wikipedia.org/?title=Dennis_Ritchie) bằng một ý nghĩ đơn giản đến cái tên của ông thôi. Chỉ cần có thế. Những vĩ nhân thật sự của nhân loại này thật sự họ chẳng cần chúng ta hàm ơn họ. Họ làm việc vì đam mê phục vụ và sáng tạo. Nhưng chúng ta cần biết và nhớ công lao của họ một cách đúng đắn lương thiện- vì chúng ta và cho chúng ta- không để cho những tên nhà nước tập đoàn lợi nhuận cướp công và độc quyền khai thác thành quả của họ vào những tác hoại cho đời sống và giá trị nhân bản.. Bọn quyền chính, tập đoàn lợi nhuận tạo nhiều BẤT CÔNG lên quần chúng, phần lớn vì chính quần chúng BẤT CÔNG và VÔ TÂM với chính bản thân họ và những ân nhân thật sự của họ.  
Vi Nhân Bất Phú, Vi Phú Bất Nhân ngàn đời không khác. Giầu Có Quyền Thế  (phú) – không phải sung túc dư giả- đi từ tính đam mê tiền lực, sẵn sàng tận dụng thủ đoạn và mánh lới, chứ không phải đi từ thiên tài trí tuệ sáng suốt. Thiên Tài Trí Tuệ đi từ đam mê kiến thức và san sẻ phục vụ nhân sinh, nên khước từ mánh lới và lòng đam mê quyền lực. Những vĩ nhân tật sự của nhân loại, những nguòi đã khai mở nhân tâm, kiến tạo nền văn minh tiến bộ hạnh phúc cho nhân loại mà tất cả mọi người từng cá nhân đang thụ hưởng , ít hay nhiều, hôm nay-  luôn khước từ quyền và lực, chứ không phải họ không có quyền và lực. Vi NHÂN tất nhiên BẤT PHÚ.
Nhân Chủ

Without Dennis Ritchie, there would be no Jobs | ZDNet

Dennis Ritchie
Dennis M. Ritchie, on the other hand, invented and co-invented two key software technologies which make up the DNA of effectively every single computer software product we use directly or even indirectly in the modern age.
It sounds like a wild claim, but it really is true.
First, let’s start with the C programming language.
Developed by Ritchie between 1969 and 1973, C is considered to be the first truly modern and portable programming language. In the 40 years or so since its introduction, it has been ported to practically every systems architecture and operating system in existence.
Because it is a imperative, compiled, procedural programming language, allowing for lexical variable scope and recursion, and allowing low-level access to memory as well as complex functionality for I/O and string manipulation, the language became quite versatile.
This allowed Ritchie and Brian Kernighan to refine it to a degree which eventually was further refined by the X3J11 committee of the American National Standards Institute as the ANSI C programming language in 1989.
In 1978, Kernighan and Ritchie published the book “The C Programming Language”. Referred to by many simply as “K&R” It is considered to be a computer science masterpiece and a critical reference for explaining the concepts of modern programming, and is still used as a text when teaching programming to students in computer science curriculums even today.
ANSI C as a programming language is also still used heavily today, and it has since mutated into a number of sister languages, all of which have strong followings.
The most popular, C++ (pronounced “C plus plus”) which was introduced by Bjarne Stroustrup in 1985 and added support for object-oriented programming and classes, is used on a variety of operating systems including every major UNIX derivative including Linux and the Mac, and is the primary programming language that has been used for Microsoft Windows software development for at least 20 years.
Objective-C, created by Brad Cox and Todd Love in the 1980s at a company called Stepstone added Smalltalk messaging capabilities to the language, further extending the language’s object-oriented and code re-usability features.
It was largely considered an obscure derivative of C until it was popularized in the NeXTStep and OpenStep operating systems in the late 1980s and early 1990’s on Steve Jobs’ NeXT computer systems, the company he formed after he was ousted by Apple’s board in 1985.
What happened “next” of course is computing history. NeXT was purchased by Apple in 1996 and Jobs returned to become CEO of the company in 1997.
In 2001, Apple launched Mac OS X, which makes heavy use of Objective-C and object-oriented technologies introduced in NeXTStep/OpenStep.
While C++ is also used heavily on the Mac, Objective-C is what is used to program to the native object-oriented “Cocoa” API in the XCode IDE which is central to the gesture recognition and animation features on iOS that powers the iPhone and the iPad.
Objective-C also provides frameworks for the Foundation Kit and Application Kit that are essential to building native OS X and iOS applications.
Microsoft has its own derivative of C in C# (pronounced “C Sharp”) that was introduced in 2001 and serves as the foundation for programming within the .NET framework.
C# is also is the basis for programming the new Metro applications in the Windows Runtime (WinRT) for the upcoming Windows 8 as well as in Windows Phone 7.x. It is also used within Linux and other Unix derivatives as the programmatic environment for Mono which is a portable version of the .NET framework.
But C’s influence doesn’t end at C language derivatives. Java, which is an important enterprise programming language (and has itself morphed into Dalvik, which is used as the primary programming environment for Android) is heavily based on C syntax.
Other languages such as Ruby, Perl and PHP which form the basis for the modern dynamic Web, all use syntax introduced in C, created by Dennis Ritchie.
So it could be said that without the work of Dennis Ritchie, we would have no modern software… at all.
I could end this article simply with what Ritchie’s development of C means to modern computing and how it impacts everyone. But I would only really be describing half of a life’s work of this man.
Ritchie is also the co-creator of the UNIX operating system. Which, of course, after being prototyped in assembly language, was completely re-written in the early 1970’s in C.
Since the very first implementation of “Unics” booted on a DEC PDP-7 back in 1969, it has mutated into many other similar operating systems running on a huge variety of systems architectures.
Name a major computer vendor, and every single one of them has had at some time an implementation of UNIX. Even Microsoft, which once owned a product called XENIX and since sold it to SCO.

You’ll want to click and zoom into this picture so you can get a better understanding of this “family”.
Essentially, there are three main branches.
One branch is the “System V” UNIXes that we know today primarily as IBM AIX, Oracle Solaris, SCO UnixWare and Hewlett Packard’s HP-UX. All of these are considered to be “Big Iron” OSes that drive critical transactional business applications and databases in the largest enterprises in the world, the Fortune 1000.
Without the System V UNIXes, the Fortune 1000 probably wouldn’t get much of anything done. Business would essentially grind to a halt.
They may only represent about 10 to 20 percent of any particular enterprise’s computing population, but it’s a very important 20 percent.
The second branch, the BSDs (Berkeley Systems Distribution) include FreeBSD/NetBSD/OpenBSD which form the basis for both Mac OS X and the iOS that powers the iPhone. They also are used as the backbone that supports much of the critical infrastructure that actually runs the Internet.
The third branch of UNIX is not even a branch at all — GNU/Linux. The Linux kernel (developed by Linus Torvalds) combined with the GNU user-space programs, tools and utilities provides for a complete re-implementation of a “UNIX-like” or “UNIX-compatible” operating system from the ground up.
Linux of course, has become the most disruptive of all the UNIX operating systems. It scales from the very small, from embedded microcontrollers to smartphones, to tablets and desktops and even the most powerful supercomputers.
One such Linux supercomputer, IBM’s Watson even beat Ken Jennings on Jeopardy! while the world watched in awe.
Still, it is important to recognize that Linux and GNU contains no UNIX code at all — hence the Free Software recursive phrase “GNU’s not UNIX.”
But by design, GNU/Linux behaves much like UNIX, and it could be said that without UNIX being developed by Ritchie and his colleagues Brian Kernighan, Ken Thompson, Douglas Mcllroy and Joe Ossanna at Bell Labs in the first place, there never would have been any Linux or an Open Source Software movement.
Or a Free Software Foundation or a Richard Stallman to be glad Steve Jobs is gone, for that matter.
But enough of religion and ideology. We owe much to Dennis Ritchie, more than we can ever possibly imagine. Without his contributions, it’s likely none of us would be using personal computers today, sophisticated software applications or even a modern Internet.
No Android smartphones, no fancy DVRs and streaming devices, and no Macs and iPads for Steve Jobs and Apple to make Amazingly Great.
No “Apps for That.”
To Dennis Ritchie, I thank you — for giving all of us the technology to be the technologists we are today.

By for Tech Broiler

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Những Đôi Vai Vĩ Đại trong công trình cống hiến cho Điện Toán

Great names in computer science

I gave up any attempt to sort this list by “importance” (too risk) or “category” (frontiers are not always well defined). Instead, I have simply chosen alphabetical order. Chronological order would probably have been better, had I been able to find everybody’s birth date, but such is not the case.
Furthermore, please consider this list as permanently incomplete and permanently inaccurate.
You are welcome to send me corrections to this list. You are also welcome to suggest additions. I’ll consider for addition anyone who seems to have made a significant contribution to computer science (in any domain). More probably, I’ll just ignore the suggestion, because this list isn’t supposed to make any kind of sense, anyway. Moreover, I will certainly not consider any suggestions for removingpeople from the list.
Here’s a chronological list for those people of whom I doknow the birth date: Blaise Pascal, Charles Babbage, Ada Lovelace, Haskell Brooks Curry, Alonzo Church, John von Neumann, Grace Hopper, Stephen Kleene, Alan Turing, Claude Shannon, Alan Perlis, John Backus, Seymour Cray, Marvin Minsky, John McCarthy, Edsger Dijkstra, Niklaus Wirth, Donald Knuth, Bob Kahn, Dennis Ritchie, Ken Thompson, Vinton Cerf, Jon Postel, Whitfield Diffie, Robert Tarjan, Bjarne Stroustrup, Steve Wozniak, Richard Stevens, Richard Stallman, Tim Berners-Lee, Linus Torvalds.

Harold Abelson
(web page)Professor of Computer Science and Engineering at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Along with Gerald Sussman, Abelson is the author of Structure and Interpretation of Computer Programs, the fabled Wizard Book.
Eric Allman
(web page) Eric Allman is the main author of the sendmailprogram, which is used by most Unix-like systems to deliver SMTP (emails), although certain alternatives have become popular, such as Daniel Bernstein‘s qmail program. Eric Allman is Kirk McKusick‘s partner.
Charles Babbage
Born: Monday, December 26, 1791, in London (England). Died: Wednesday, October 18, 1871, in London (England). Babbage is considered one of the forefathers of computer science for having designed and built the difference engine, and having imagined (with the help of Ada Lovelace) the analytical engine, which, although it was never built in his lifetime, can be considered as a true (mechanical) computer. See also Babbage’s biographyon the MacTutor History of Mathematics archive.
John W. Backus
Born: Wednesday, December 3, 1924, in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (USA). John Backus headed the development group at IBM which gave birth to the language FORTRAN (the oldest programming language, excepting theoretical concepts like the Lambda Calculus, and, of course, assembler). John Backus is the 1977 recipient of the ACM‘s A. M. Turing Award and a charter recipient of the IEEE Computer Society‘s Pioneer Award.
Tim Berners-Lee
(web page) Born: Wednesday, June 8, 1955, in London (UK). Tim Berners-Lee is the inventor of what is now known as the World Wide Web: his original proposal for Information Management, circulated in 1989, is the founding idea of the hypertext information web; and he is the author of the original internet draft specifications of HTTP, HTMLand URLs in 1993 (current specifications: HTTP, XHTML and URI).
Daniel Julius Bernstein
(web page)
Vinton Cerf
(web page — sort of) Born: Wednesday, June 23, 1943, in Newhaven, Connecticut (USA). Vinton Cerf is the father of the Internet. He and Bob Kahn are the principal architects of the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) that is one of the foundational stones of the Internet (see for example this historical document), as well as the earlier Network Control Protocol (NCP). His speech The Internet is for Everyone, given at the Computers, Freedom and Privacy conference on April 7, 1999, defined the Internet Society‘s new motto. Now Vinton Cerf’s interests include planning the development of the InterPlanetary Internet. Vinton Cerf is the 2004 recipient of the ACM‘s A. M. Turing Award.
Sivasubramanian Chandrasegarampilai
Designer of the Heuristically programmed ALgorithmic (HAL) computer.
Alonzo Church
Born: Sunday, June 14, 1903, in Washington, DC (USA). Died: Friday, August 11, 1995, in Hudson, Ohio (USA). Alonzo Church is the inventor of the Lambda Calculus, which is in a way the first programming language ever. See also Church’s biographyon the MacTutor History of Mathematics archive.
Alan Cox
(web page — sort of) Alan Cox is the vice-pinguin after Linus Torvalds.
Seymour R. Cray
Born: Monday, September 28, 1925, in Chippewa Falls, Wisconsin (USA). Died: Saturday, October 5, 1996, in Colorado Springs, Colorado (USA). He founded Cray Research in 1972; in 1976, he unveiled the CRAY-1, the world’s first supercomputer. Seymour Cray is a charter recipient of the IEEE Computer Society‘s Pioneer Award.
Haskell Brooks Curry
Born: Wednesday, September 12, 1900, in Millis, Massachusetts (USA). Died: Wednesday, September 1, 1982, in State College, Pennsylvania (USA). The programming language Haskell is named after him; and so is the “currying” operation on functions of several arguments. See also Curry’s biographyon the MacTutor History of Mathematics archive.
David Cutler
(fan club) Architect of DEC‘s VMS operating system, and of Microsoft‘s Windows NT.
Theo de Raadt
(web site) Theo de Raadt is the founder of the OpenBSDproject after a dispute with the NetBSD core team in 1995.
L. Peter Deutsch
Peter Deutsch encountered the world of the True Hackers of the “Tech Model Railroad Club” (at MIT AI Lab) at age twelve when he discovered the TX-0’s console. In 1963, when he was still a high school student, he developped the first interactive implementation of Lisp, for the PDP-1 computer. He worked on Smalltalk at Xerox PARC from 1971 to 1986. He is the author of the ghostscript program, started in 1986 (for which he promised Richard Stallmanthat all versions would eventually be released under the GNU GPL). He presides Aladdin Enterprises.
Whitfield Diffie
Born: Monday, June 5, 1944. Inventor of public key cryptography.
Edsger Wybe Dijkstra
(web page) Born: 1930, in Rotterdam (the Netherlands). Died: Tuesday, August 6, 2002, in Nuenen (the Netherlands). Edsger Dijkstra is the inventor of the concept of semaphore, which is at the basis of all synchronized programming. He is also one of the main contributors to the language ALGOL. Edsger Dijkstra is the 1972 recipient of the ACM‘s A. M. Turing Award and a charter recipient of the IEEE Computer Society‘s Pioneer Award. His famous speech, Go To Statement Considered Harmful, has become a classic.
John “Captain Crunch” Draper
(web page) Fame — and trouble — came to John Draper when he discovered a way to crack (“phreak”) into the phone company’s network.
Jim Ellis
Born: 1956? Died: Thursday, June 28, 2001, in Harmony, Pennsylvania (USA). Jim Ellis was co-creator of Usenet.
John “GNU” Gilmore
(web page) John Gilmore is the co-founder of Cygnus Solutions, and of the Electronic Frontier Foundation.
James Gosling
(web page) Gosling is the inventor of the Javaprogramming language.
Richard William Gosper
Born: 1943? One of the True Hackers, the mathematician of the lot, and sometime mentor to RMS. He was fascinated by Conway’s “Game of Life” when he learned about it, and he contributed much to its study. He later took part in the writing of the MacSyma program.
Richard Greenblatt
Arch-Hacker of the True Hackers. Richard Greenblatt is the inventor of the Lisp machine, and his “betrayal” by the Symbolics team brought the end of the True Hackers’ era.
Grace Brewster Murray Hopper
Born (Grace Brewster Murray): Sunday, December 9, 1906, in New York City, New York (USA). Died: Wednesday, January 1, 1992, in Arlington, Virginia (USA). She was rear admiral in the United States Navy. She programmed the world’s first computers, notably the Mark I through Mark III. Later, she had a hand in standardizing COBOL.
Jordan Hubbard
(web page) Co-founder of the FreeBSD project.
David Albert Huffman
Born: 1925? Inventor of a method for constructing binary trees which is of great importance in compression theory.
Steven Jobs
Born: February 1955 (adopted after birth), in Los Altos, California (USA). Steve Jobs is the co-founder of Apple.
William N. Joy
Born: 1955? Bill Joy started the “BSD” flavor of Unix, with Chuck Halley. He is co-founder of Sun Microsystems (with Andreas Bechtolsheim, Vinod Khosla and Scott McNealy). Bill Joy is the 1986 recipient of the ACM‘s G. M. Hopper Award.
Robert E. Kahn
Born: Friday, December 23, 1938, in New York City, New York (USA). Bob Kahn and Vint Cerf are the principal architects of the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) that is one of the foundational stones of the Internet. Bob Kahn is a 1996 recipient of the IEEE Computer Society‘s Pioneer Award and the 2004 recipient of the ACM‘s A. M. Turing Award.
Brian Wilson Kernighan
(web page) Brian Kernighan is the co-inventor, with Alfred Aho and Peter Weinberg, of the Awk programming language. He is co-author, with Dennis Ritchie, of the Book on C. His critique of the Pascal language is justly famous.
Stephen Cole Kleene
Born: Tuesday, January 5, 1909, in Hartford, Connecticut (USA). Died: Tuesday, January 25, 1994, in Madison, Wisconsin (USA). See also Kleene’s biographyon the MacTutor History of Mathematics archive.
Tom Knight
(web page) One of the True Hackers. Tom Knight had a hand (with Greenblatt and others) in developping the Incompatible Timesharing System, and he gave it its name.
Donald Ervin Knuth
(web page) Born: Monday, January 10, 1938, in Milwaukee, Wisconsin (USA). Donald Knuth is the author of the (multi-volume, never-to-be-finished) treatise on programming entitled The Art Of Computer Programming (TAOCP). Because he was unhappy about the typesetter’s job in printing this treatise, he invented (in the 1970’s) his own typesetting program: TeX, which is still around and much used today. Donald Knuth is the 1974 recipient of the ACM‘s A. M. Turing Award, the 1971 recipient of the G. M. Hopper Award, a charter recipient of the IEEE Computer Society‘s Pioneer Award.
David C. “Tale” Lawrence
Tale is one of the Usenet pioneers.
Augusta Ada King, Countess of Lovelace
Born: Sunday, December 10, 1815, in Piccadily (England). Died: Saturday, November 27, 1852, in London (England). She was a daughter of the poet Lord Byron. She is often counted as the first “programmer”, for her work on Babbage‘s Analytical Engine. The programming language Ada is named after her. See also Ada Lovelace’s biographyon the MacTutor History of Mathematics archive.
John McCarthy
(web page). Born: Sunday, September 4, 1927, in Boston, Massachusetts (USA). John McCarthy is the co-founder, with Marvin Minsky, of the Artificial Intelligence Laboratoryat MIT, where, among other things, the True Hackers were bred — and he was something of an uncle to them all. He is also the inventor of the name, if not the term, of “artificial intelligence”. He is the inventor of the Lisp programming language (the second oldest after FORTRAN, and still considered unequaled by some), in 1958. John McCarthy is the 1971 recipient of the ACM‘s A. M. Turing Award and a 1985 recipient of the IEEE Computer Society‘s Pioneer Award.
Marshall Kirk McKusick
(web page) Kirk McKusick is one of the early developpers of BSD Unix. He designed and implemented the 4.2BSD Fast File System, and oversaw the development and release of 4.3BSD and 4.4BSD. He collaborates with the teams of all the BSD-descended systems, and recently contributed the “SoftUpdates” filesystem extension. He is Eric Allman‘s companion.
Marvin Minsky
(web page)Born: Tuesday, August 9, 1927, in New York City, New York (USA). Marvin Minsky is the co-founder, with John McCarthy, of the Artificial Intelligence Laboratoryat MIT, where, among other things, the True Hackers were bred. Marvin Minsky has written many an influential text on artificial intelligence. Marvin Minsky is the 1969 recipient of the ACM‘s A. M. Turing Award and a 1995 recipient of the IEEE Computer Society‘s Pioneer Award.
Blaise Pascal
Born: Monday, June 19, 1623, in Clermont (France). Died: Saturday, August 19, 1662, in Paris (France). Pascal is the inventor of a digital calculator (and consequently counted as one of the forefathers of computer science), the “Pascaline”, but it would seem, in fact, that a calculator had already been invented by Schickard in 1624. The programming language Pascal (invented by Niklaus Wirth) is named after Blaise Pascal (see also Brian Kernighan‘s critique of this language). See also Pascal’s biographyon the MacTutor History of Mathematics archive.
Bruce Perens
(web page)
Alan J. Perlis
Born: Saturday, April 1, 1922, in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (USA). Died: Wednesday, February 7, 1990, in New Haven, Connecticut (USA). Alan Perlis was the first head of CMU‘s Computer Science Department. His taste for epigrams has left us many wise sayingsabout computers and computer science, such as “Syntactic sugar causes cancer of the semicolon”. Alan Perlis is the 1966 (first) recipient of the ACM‘s A. M. Turing Award and a 1985 recipient of the IEEE Computer Society‘s Pioneer Award.
Jonathan B. Postel
(web page) Born: Friday, August 6, 1943, in Altadena, California (USA). Died: Friday, October 16, 1998, in Los Angeles, California (USA). Jon Postel created the RFC (“Requests For Comments”) series of documents, and was the RFC editor until his death.
Dennis M. Ritchie
(web page) Born: Tuesday, September 9, 1941, in Mount Vernon, New York (USA). Dennis Ritchie invented the Cprogramming language, for use with Ken Thompson‘s recently invented Unix system, during his work at AT&T Bell Labs in 1969. He is co-author, with Brian Kernighan, of the Book on C. Dennis Ritchie is the 1983 recipient of the ACM‘s A. M. Turing Award (with Ken Thompson) and a 1994 recipient of the IEEEComputer Society‘s Pioneer Award.
Eric Steven Raymond
(web page)
Adi Shamir
Adi Shamir is the 2002 recipient of the ACM‘s A. M. Turing Award.
Claude Elwood Shannon
Born: Sunday, April 30, 1916, in Gaylord, Michigan (USA). Died: Saturday, February 24, 2001, in Medford, Massachusetts (USA). The father of information theory. See also Shannon’s biographyon the MacTutor History of Mathematics archive.
Gene Spafford
(web page) Spaf is one of the Usenet pioneers, and more or less gave it its current form. He is a computer security expert.
Richard Matthew Stallman (“RMS”)
(web page) Born: Monday, March 16, 1953, in New York City, New York (USA). Last of the True Hackers. RMS is the author of the Emacs editor. He founded the GNU (“Gnu’s Not Unix”) project in September 1983, to write a free clone of Ken Thompson‘s Unix operating system. He is the president of the Free Software Foundation, which he founded to host the GNU project. Richard Stallman is the 1990 recipient of the ACM‘s G. M. Hopper Award. He was also made a MacArthur foundation fellow (“genius”) for the 1990–1995 term.
Guy Lewis Steele, Jr.
Guy Steele is one of the inventors, with Gerry Sussman, of the Schemeprogramming language (a descendant of Lisp). He is employed by Sun Microsystems, where he has among other things helped develop the specifications of the Java language. Guy Steele is the 1988 recipient of the ACM‘s G. M. Hopper Award.
W. Richard Stevens
(web page) Born: 1951, in Luanshya (Northern Rhodesia). Died: Wednesday, September 1, 1999.
Bjarne Stroustrup
(web page)Born: 1950, in Aarhus (Denmark). Stroustrup invended the C++programming language.
Gerald Jay Sussman
(web page)Professor of Electrical Engineering at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Gerry Sussman is one of the inventors, with Guy Stele, of the Schemeprogramming language (a descendant of Lisp). Along with Harold Abelson, Sussman is the author of Structure and Interpretation of Computer Programs, the fabled Wizard Book.
Robert Endre Tarjan
(web page) Born: Friday, April 30, 1948, in Pomona, California (USA). Robert Tarjan is the 1986 recipient of the ACM‘s A. M. Turing Award and the 1982 (first) recipient of the International Mathematicians’ Union Nevanlinna Prize.
Kenneth Thompson
(web page) Born: Thursday, February 4, 1943, in New Orleans, Louisiana (USA). Ken Thompson invented the operating system Unix during his work at AT&T Bell Labs in 1970. Ken Thompson is the 1983 recipient of the ACM‘s A. M. Turing Award (with Dennis Ritchie) and a 1994 recipient of the IEEEComputer Society‘s Pioneer Award.
Linus Benedict Torvalds
(web page) Born: Sunday, December 28, 1969, in Helsinki (Finland). Linus is the author of the Linux operating system kernel, which has, in a way, provided a successful term to the GNU project started by Richard Stallman.
Alan Mathison Turing
Born: Sunday, June 23, 1912, in London (England). Died: Monday, June 7, 1954, in Wilmslow, Cheshire (England). Turing was one of Alonzo Church‘s doctoral students. In 1936, he defined what is now referred to as a “Turing machine”, and proved the universality theorem. He is often considered as the founder of computer science. During WW2, he became a hero by building a machine which could decode the German communications enciphered by means of the “enigma” device. He was homosexual, and completely open about it; but homosexual acts were forbidden in England until 1966. After Turing was convicted in 1952, he was made to take hormonal injections which made him deeply unhappy. He died of cyanide poisoning, and while it is often thought to have been suicide, it was more probably accidental. See also Turing’s biographyon the MacTutor History of Mathematics archive.
John von Neumann
Born: Monday, December 28, 1903, in Budapest (Hungary). Died: Friday, February 8, 1957, in Washington DC (USA). Von Neumann is credited with the idea of having a computer store its instructions (code) in the same memory as it stores its data (rather than, e.g. in hardwired form). This makes him the inventor of the modern computer. See also von Neumann’s biographyon the MacTutor History of Mathematics archive.
Paul Vixie
(web page — sort of) Paul Vixie is a director of the Internet Software Consortium
Larry Wall
(web page) Larry Wall wrote the “patch” program. He is the inventor of the Perl programming language.
Niklaus E. Wirth
Born: Thursday, February 15, 1934, in Winterhur (Switzerland). Wirth is the inventor of the Pascal programming language (named in honor of Blaise Pascal). Niklaus Wirth is the 1984 recipient of the ACM‘s A. M. Turing Award and a 1987 recipient of the IEEE Computer Society‘s Pioneer Award.
Stephen Wozniak
(web page) Born: Friday, August 11, 1950. Wozniak designed the first “Apple” computer. Stephen Wozniak is the 1979 recipient of the ACM‘s G. M. Hopper Award.